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Horticulture


India's Top Mango Producers states in 2022-23

India's Top Mango Producers states in 2022-23

India, the land of vibrant spices and diverse flavors, holds a special place in its heart for the "King of Fruits" - the mango. Every summer, the country explodes with the sweet aroma and juicy goodness of this beloved fruit.

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LUCKNOW / MUMBAI, 5 April 2024: India, the land of vibrant spices and diverse flavors, holds a special place in its heart for the "King of Fruits" - the mango. Every summer, the country explodes with the sweet aroma and juicy goodness of this beloved fruit.

But where exactly does this abundance of mangoes originate? Let's embark on a journey to discover the states that reigned supreme in mango production during 2022-23.

Uttar Pradesh: The Undisputed Mango Monarch

Uttar Pradesh emerges as the undisputed champion of mango production in India for 2022-23. This state, boasting vast agricultural lands and ideal climatic conditions - hot and humid summers with well-distributed rainfall - provides the perfect cradle for nurturing a staggering 2.5 million metric tons of mangoes annually.

This translates to roughly 25% of the nation's total mango output, solidifying Uttar Pradesh's position as the undisputed mango king. The state boasts a rich history of mango cultivation, dating back centuries.  Internationally renowned varieties like Dasheri, Langra, and Chausa find their home in Uttar Pradesh's sprawling orchards, cultivated using advanced and efficient farming practices.

Andhra Pradesh: A Worthy Contender with Processing Powerhouse Status

Following closely behind Uttar Pradesh is Andhra Pradesh, another major player in India's mango production scene. While specific production figures for 2022-23 are not yet widely available, estimates suggest Andhra Pradesh contributes a significant share, likely exceeding 1.2 million metric tons annually. This translates to roughly 22% of the national production, making it a worthy contender for the mango crown.

Notably, Andhra Pradesh is particularly renowned for its production of processed mango varieties like Alphonso and Totapuri. The state's fertile coastal regions are dotted with numerous mango processing units, transforming the bounty of fresh mangoes into delectable pulp, pickles, and other value-added products.

The Powerhouse Trio: Karnataka and Bihar Round Out the Top Ranks

The mango map of India wouldn't be complete without acknowledging Karnataka and Bihar. Karnataka, with its suitable climate and established orchards, emerges as a strong contender, likely contributing over 1 million metric tons of mangoes annually. This translates to roughly 10% of the national production. The state is known for its Alphonso mangoes, a prized variety coveted for its exquisite flavor and aroma.

Bihar, often referred to as the "Land of Litchi," also deserves recognition for its significant contribution to mango production, likely exceeding 1 million metric tons annually. This translates to roughly another 10% of the national output. The state is known for its indigenous mango varieties like Langra and Fazli, popular for their unique taste and sweetness.

A Tapestry of Flavors: Other Notable Mango Producing States

While Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, and Bihar occupy the top ranks, several other Indian states contribute significantly to the national mango basket:

Gujarat: This western state, with its hot and dry climate, is well-suited for cultivating specific mango varieties like Kesar and Kesari.

Tamil Nadu: Known for its Alphonso mangoes, Tamil Nadu plays a crucial role in the production of processed mango products.

Telangana: A relatively new state, Telangana is rapidly emerging as a mango producer, leveraging its fertile lands and favorable climate.

Maharashtra: This state, with its diverse agro-climatic zones, cultivates a variety of mango varieties, including Alphonso and Pairi.

Factors Contributing to Mango Production Success

Several key factors contribute to the success of these states in mango production:

Climate: The ideal temperature range for mango cultivation falls between 25-35°C. Most of the leading mango producing states experience these conditions, making them naturally suited for cultivating this fruit.

Soil: Well-drained, fertile soil is essential for optimal mango growth. The leading mango producing states are blessed with such lands, providing the necessary nutrients for healthy mango trees.

Government Initiatives: The Indian government has implemented various initiatives to promote mango production, including providing subsidies for planting materials, promoting pest management practices, and investing in research and development.

Advanced Farming Techniques: Many leading mango producing states have adopted advanced farming techniques like high-density planting, drip irrigation, and fertigation, leading to increased yields and improved fruit quality.

Challenges Faced by Mango Farmers in India

Even though India reigns supreme in mango production, its mango farmers grapple with several challenges that can significantly impact their livelihood. Here's a closer look at some of the major hurdles they face:

Post-Harvest Losses: This is a major concern for mango farmers across the country. The highly perishable nature of mangoes translates to significant losses if proper storage and transportation facilities are lacking. Traditional methods often lead to spoilage during peak harvest season, resulting in a decrease in income for farmers.

Pest and Disease Management: Mango trees are susceptible to a variety of pests, including fruit flies, mealybugs, and mites. Additionally, fungal and bacterial diseases like anthracnose and powdery mildew can wreak havoc on mango crops. Managing these threats requires constant vigilance and the use of appropriate pesticides and fungicides. However, this can be expensive for farmers, especially small-scale growers.

Fluctuating Market Prices: The price of mangoes can fluctuate wildly depending on the season, supply, and demand. This lack of stability makes it difficult for farmers to plan their finances and secure a fair return on their investment. Often, bumper harvests lead to a glut in the market, causing prices to plummet, while off-season scarcity can see prices skyrocket, but only benefitting middlemen rather than the farmers themselves.

Lack of Cold Storage Facilities: The limited availability of cold storage facilities further exacerbates the issue of post-harvest losses. With proper cold storage, farmers could extend the shelf life of their mangoes and potentially fetch better prices by selling them later in the season or transporting them to distant markets. However, the high cost of setting up and maintaining cold storage facilities is often out of reach for individual farmers.

Limited Access to Information and Technology: Many mango farmers, particularly those in smaller villages, lack access to the latest information on advanced farming techniques, pest management practices, and market trends. This knowledge gap can hinder their ability to improve yields, minimize losses, and maximize their profits. Additionally, limited access to technology like weather forecasting tools and online marketplaces can further disadvantage them.

Fragmentation of Landholdings: A significant portion of mango farmers in India operate on small, fragmented pieces of land. This makes it difficult for them to adopt large-scale, mechanized farming practices that could improve efficiency and productivity. Additionally, fragmented landholdings can complicate access to resources and government support programs.

Exploitation by Middlemen: Middlemen often play a significant role in the mango supply chain. While they can help connect farmers with markets, they can also exploit the situation by offering low prices for mangoes, leaving farmers with a meager share of the final selling price. This lack of direct access to consumers weakens the farmers' bargaining power.

Addressing these challenges is crucial for ensuring the sustainability and profitability of mango production in India. By implementing initiatives that improve storage infrastructure, promote access to knowledge and technology, and encourage fair market practices, India can empower its mango farmers and further solidify its position as the global leader in mango production.

Image credit: istock.com


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